Menstrual Disorders

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    Medical Service Name – Menstrual Disorders (including Painful Periods)

    Most women have four to seven-day menstrual cycles. A woman’s menstruation generally comes every 28 days, although regular menstrual cycles can last anywhere from 21 to 35 days.

    Menstrual issues might include the following:

    • Periods fewer than 21 days apart or more than 35 days away
    • Missing more than three periods in a row
    • Much heavier or lighter menstrual flow than normal
    • Longer-than-seven-day periods
    • Periods marked by soreness, stiffness, and queasy feeling
    • Straining or bleeding that occurs between cycles, after menopause, or after intercourse

    Possible Causes

    Abnormal periods can be caused by a variety of factors, ranging from stress to more serious medical conditions:

    • Lifestyle Factors – Dieting, changes in exercise habits, travel, sickness, or other interruptions in a woman’s daily routine can affect her menstrual cycle.
    • Contraception Pills – Most birth control tablets include a mix of the hormones estrogen and progestin (some contain progestin alone). The drugs prevent pregnancy by preventing the release of eggs from the ovaries. Menstruation can be affected by these tablets. For up to six months after childbirth, some women experience irregular or missing periods.
    • Fibroids or uterine polyps – Small, noncancerous growths in the uterine lining are known as uterine polyps. Uterine fibroids are tumors that grow on the uterine wall. Although these tumors are typically harmless, they can cause excessive bleeding and discomfort during periods. Large fibroids may exert strain on the bladder or rectum, producing inflammation.
    • Endometriosis  Endometriosis is a condition in which endometrial tissue grows outside of the uterus.
    • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) – It is a bacterial illness that damages the female reproductive system.
    • Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)  It is a hormonal imbalance that disrupts normal reproductive processes in women.
    • Ovarian insufficiency  This disease affects women under the age of 40 whose ovaries aren’t functioning correctly. Similar to menopause, the menstrual cycle comes to an end.

    Risk Factors

    • Weight – Dysmenorrhea (painful periods) and amenorrhea (absence of periods) can both be caused by being overweight or underweight.
    • Menstrual Flow and Cycles – Painful cramps are linked to more prolonged and heavier menstrual periods.
    • History of Pregnancy – Menorrhagia is more likely to occur in women who have had many pregnancies. Dysmenorrhea is more common among women who have never given birth, whereas it is less common in women who have given birth for the first time at a young age.
    • Smoking – Smoking might raise the likelihood of having a heavier menstruation.
    • Stress – Physical and mental stress can prevent the luteinizing hormone from being released, resulting in amenorrhea.

    Sign & Symptoms

    The following are some examples of irregular menstruation signs:

    • Amenorrhea is a condition in which a woman’s menstrual cycles have halted. Unless a woman is pregnant, nursing, or going through menopause, missing her period for 90 days or more is considered odd (unless for women between ages 45 and 55). Amenorrhea affects young women who haven’t begun menstruation by the age of 15 or 16, or within three years of their breasts formation.
    • Oligomenorrhea refers to irregular menstrual cycles.
    • Dysmenorrhea is a condition that causes painful periods and severe menstrual cramps. Most women experience some discomfort during their period.
    • Abnormal uterine bleeding can refer to several abnormalities. It includes a heavier menstrual flow; a period that lasts more than seven days; or bleeding or spotting between cycles, after intercourse, or after menopause.


    • Blood tests
    • Pap test
    • Ultrasound: A type of imaging that creates a picture of the pelvic organs by using high-frequency sound waves.
    • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): A diagnostic process that produces comprehensive pictures of the reproductive organs using a combination of huge magnets, radio frequencies, and a computer.
    • Laparoscopy: A laparoscope, a small tube with a lens and a light, is placed into an incision in the abdominal wall during a minor surgical procedure called laparoscopy. The physician may often find abnormal growths using the laparoscope to look into the pelvic and abdominal areas.
    • Hysteroscopy: Using a hysteroscope inserted via the vaginal canal, a visual examination of the cervical canal and the inside of the uterus is performed.
    • Endometrial biopsy: Tissue samples are taken from the uterine lining with a needle or during surgery to see if cancer or other abnormal cells are present.
    • Dilation and curettage (D&C): A popular gynecological procedure that involves using a dilator to expand the cervical canal and scraping the uterine cavity with a curette, a spoon-shaped surgical tool used to remove tissue.

    Treatment Options at 7DMC

    Discussing your menstrual disorder symptoms with our doctors might aid in determining which therapies are most effective in reducing or alleviating your symptoms, such as:

    • Diuretics
    • Prostaglandin inhibitors
    • Supplements containing hormones
    • Oral contraceptives
    • Tranquilizers
    • Supplements of vitamins and minerals
    • Dietary alterations
    • Antidepressants
    • Exercise regularly
    • Surgery

    Frequently asked questions

    The most common symptoms include:

    • Cramping or discomfort in the lower abdomen.
    • Backache or leg pain.

    Heavy bleeding, missing periods, and uncontrollable mood swings are examples of menstrual disorders. These are physical and/or emotional symptoms that occur right before and during menstruation. Some women have no problems getting through their monthly periods.

    An occasional irregular menstruation is typically not a reason for concern. However, if your period is persistently irregular, consult with your OB-GYN to rule out more serious problems, such as: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) Ectopic pregnancy difficulties.